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Glossary of English Grammar


Ajax Loader Gif

Active/Passive - the police caught the thief (act)/ the thief was caught by the police (passive)

Adjective - describes a noun: the cat is very happy

Adverb -
describes a verb, an adjective or another adverb:
the cat is extremely small / the cat moved stealthily

Articles -
the (definite) a/an (indefinite)

Conditional (also see modal) - could/would/should

Conjunction - joins clauses/parts of sentence: and/or/but etc.

Demonstrative -
this, that, these, those

Direct/Indirect object - I gave the present to him{direct} /I gave him the present (indirect)

Gender - masculine or feminine noun (no formal rule in English. A ship, for example, is feminine by tradition. (all who sail in her )

Gerund - a noun formed from a verb: I like swimming
Irregular verb - does not follow typical paint/painted pattern. See here

Infinitive -
base form of the verb: to drink / to sleep

Lexeme - smallest unit of language: I have been = three lexemes

Main clause/Subordinate clause -
I’ll feed the dog [main clause] when he barks [subordinate clause]

Modal verb:
auxiliary verb used with another verb to express a certain mood or intention: I can’t swim / I have to do my work

Mood -
form a verb can take.There are three types of mood:
a) Indicative: used with statements/facts
b)
Imperative: instructions/directions
c)
Subjunctive: expresses doubt/possibility

Noun - naming word giraffe / telephone

Past/Present/Future tense - when something happens/happened

Possessive -
Indicates possession: mine / yours / his

Preposition:
places in time, location or direction: on, at, between

Pronoun -
word that replaces a noun: he/she/it
Personal pronoun - I /you/he/she/we/you/they

Reflexive pronoun -
Myself / yourself / himself
Reflexive verb - I hurt myself
Singular/Plural - there is a spoon {singular} and two knives {plural}

Subject - The person/thing/animal doing the action: the monkey eats banana

Verb -
an action/doing word: paint, go, be etc

Verbal - verb form that functions as a noun


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